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Intelligence can be measured in a number of ways, for example IQ (Intelligence Quotient), EQ (Emotional Quotient), and AQ (Adversity Quotient). Multiple intelligences theory is another way to describe intelligence.
Howard Gardner, a psychologist and Professor at Harvard University, developed a framework in which he describes seven types of intelligence. Gardner defines intelligence as ‘the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting’ (Gardner, 1993).
These intelligences are also present in different parts of the brain, and if people suffer a brain injury this can affect their abilities in one or more of these intelligences.
There are also individuals who are especially talented in one of the intelligences, but not very good in others.
His classification of human intelligences is presented in the table below.
Characteristics and ability
|Logical-mathematical intelligence||possesses reasoning ability; thinks logically; in science and mathematics||Sciences, Maths||Grammar rules|
|Linguistic intelligence||able to master language systems; able to communicate and express; able to use language as a means of recalling information||English, Chinese||Everything!|
|Spatial intelligence||able to create mental images; able to visualize a future result in the process of problem solving; possesses imagination||Design||Tenses|
|Musical intelligence||able to understand and compose music; able to understand and appreciate melody and rhythm||Music||Songs|
|Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence||able to use body skillfully; good at coordinating physical movements; can use body to present ideas and emotions||Physical Education||Drama|
|Interpersonal intelligence||able to work effectively with others; can understand others’ emotions and intentions||Social work, Management||Business and social communication|
|Intrapersonal intelligence||can understand own feelings and motivation; can review own achievements and set goals||Independent learning||Self-analysis|
Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind : the theory of multiple intelligences . London: Fontana Press. Available in HKPU Library, Call Number BF431 .G244 1993, click here for details.
Recently Gardner has discussed 2 more intelligences:
|Naturalist Intelligence||the ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) and sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations). This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.||Biology, Catering|
|Existential Intelligence||the ability and interest to think about questions about life, death, and ultimate realities.||Philosophy, Religious studies|
For each word you can click on the links to get a definition, example sentences, pronunciation or a Chinese translation.
Match the words from the left column in the bottom table to the words with the same meaning on the right.
Match the items in the boxes on the left with the items on the right:
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