Answer the following questions to make an in-text citation or a bibliographic
1. Do you want to make a reference
a. in the text of your
writing (an in-text citation), or
b. in the bibliography /
reference list at the end of your writing ?
2. Do you want to do a reference for:
- a book (where all the content is written by only
one author, or up to three authors working together. The chapters should not be by
- an article in a journal. A journal has many
articles, written by different authors. A journal is a periodical, which means that
a new issue is produced monthly, quarterly or yearly etc., so it has different issues, as
shown in a Volume number and a Number.
- a chapter in an edited volume (a book which has
articles or chapters written by different authors, and editors who write the introduction.
There is only one issue, which is why it is different from a journal.)
- a newspaper or magazine article:
- an Internet reference: APA-style,
- an online image:
- music: APA-style
- AI Chatbot (e.g. ChatGPT): APA-style,
Referencing Resources on the Internet
Thursday, 04 May 2023
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