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Learning Outcomes

By the end of VOCABULARY LEVEL 2 you should be able to
✔ study vocabulary independently
✔ use different strategies to expand and record vocabulary

Introduction to Independent Learning

Independent learning gives you more choice about what, when and how fast to study. It also prepares you to learn after complete full time education.

In order to study independently you need to be able to set your own aims, choose how you want to study and reflect on the usefulness of studying that you do and on your overall progress.

Since you have chosen to study VOCABULARY LEVEL 2, we can assume that you want to learn more about how to expand and remember words more effectively. The online activities are designed to help you to develop and build the bank of words and expressions that you have at your disposal.

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Rating Form

Package 2 – Using a concordance

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section you should
✔ know how corpus analysis can highlight patterns of grammar and meaning

Introduction

In Vocabulary Level 1 we looked at how to use a dictionary and a thesaurus. In this package we’re going to explore another language tool, a concordance.

Activity 1

Before we move on, use dictionary to find to the meaning of these words:

  • thesaurus
  • concordance
  • corpora

Using corpora and concordances

A language corpus is a collection or body of texts, chosen according to certain criteria. It aims at facilitating the discovery of facts about language. Early corpora were often used for biblical and literary studies, but in the past 2 decades their use has grown enormously. For example, some dictionaries and an increasing number of grammar books are now corpus-derived.

Concordances used in language research and teaching are usually of the type that shows key word in context, that is, a chosen word-form from a given corpus of data is displayed in all its occurrences with a number of words either side of the key word, providing some context.

For example, here is a concordance for the word 'survey', which is in the middle of each line. It shows that the usual prepositions used after 'survey' are 'of' and 'on', and that common verbs after 'survey' are 'released' and 'showed'.

1 addition, a detailed interspecies  survey of the incidence of generalized pulm
2  an      Sir, I have carried out a survey of the official engagements carried 
3 years  Sponsor has issued an annual survey of the size and  characteristics of 
4  up the most recent being the CBI's survey of wage settlements   published a fe
5 (170>  (92:06:03>  (2>   Appeal for survey on appointees  By JEREMY  LAU  THE L
6   today   the results of last week's survey on Chinese attitude on   Emperor Aki
7  t few years.  It  conducted a brief survey on its staff's plans and found that 
8 refusal to conduct a  territory-wide survey on pay and promotion disparities bet
9  tion had demanded repeatedly that a survey  on salaries paid to male and female
10  on  Department and was conducting a survey on sex education.   But at the flat 
11  ture and Fisheries Department (AFD) survey released  yesterday said water quali
12  ependent Frank Small and Associates survey released by RTHK puts Metro's share
13  passengers. A Transport Department  survey released last week concluded that a 
14   findings of a kindergarten teacher survey  released last week for the union's 
15  decision, a University of  Hongkong survey showed 84 per cent felt the death pe
16  cil's claims  of overcharging.  The survey showed couples were charged  up to t
17  ally double the price  quoted.  The survey showed couples were generally  promi
18   respectability is   intact after a survey showed the Kent town has the lowest 

Activity 2      Insights into corpus lexicography

Here are the entries for the word ‘rose’. Look through the entries and then answer the questions that follow.

1    had been declining for five months, rose a bit in   November this despite ris
2    ere is still   pride that the state rose above its hillbilly reputation to se
3     became indistinct. Then his  voice rose again. ``. . . it may involve a cert
4    es on the territory's  stock market rose, all because of special factors. {pa
5    icers for   Matthew Williams, Keith Rose and Andrew Rodger. Mr Wright believe
6     trace of   Matthew Williams, Keith Rose and Andrew Rodger. The only clue has
7    ruce document negotiated by General Rose and signed on   Saturday, casts a sh
8    ed to Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose and Vikram Seth's   A Suitable Boy b
9    outh coast of England.        Keith Rose, 45, Andrew Rodger, 44, and Matthew 
10   d  lung disease. {para} Dust levels rose around the territory  generally beca
11   wed up, the temperature in the hall rose as   fast as it was falling outside.
12    Shell's Tern field, where output   rose 62,000 bpd after October's shutdown.
13   en the value of his Telegraph stake rose by $114m. This   year its value slum
14    figures, lending on credit cards   rose by $156 million compared with an inc
15   CIDES in the year ending March 31,  rose by 10 per cent over the previous yea
16   those  involving the private sector rose by 13 per cent. {para}  Reports agai
17    Eurolira   contract, whose volumes rose by 134 per cent.        Trading cont
18   rices for offices and factory units rose by 15 per cent, and  retail premises
19    into   account, his earnings still rose by 17.2 per cent.                   
20   ectations,  escalating fares (which rose by 19.5 per cent last year) and  com
21   ease of 10  cents. The diesel price rose by 20 cents on May 13. {para}  Other
22   rices in the year to last October   rose by 3.4 per cent. Mark Hemmingway, a 
23   at  complaints against taxi drivers rose by 36 per cent in the  1991-92 finan
24   gest operation, Boots the   Chemist,rose by 4.1 per cent, helped by increases
25   sumed per job by journeys to   work rose by 40 per cent between 1981 and 1991
26   act of property   disposals,profits rose by 69 per cent.        Earnings rose
27   4,600.        Registrations of cars rose by 7 per cent, in the 12 months to N
28   ober   l994, prices in the Province rose by 8.3 per cent, bringing the annual
29   s of tractor units in the UK market rose by a third, while demand   for 7.5 t
30    Bay typhoon shelter, Shau Kei Wan, rose by an  estimated $100 million. {para
31   serves of gold and foreign currency rose by an underlying   $62 million in De
32   ales of over-the-counter healthcare rose by only 1.7 per cent because   of st
33   folios of 57.5% while   the Footsie rose by only 20.1%. But on a two-year vie
34   always worked within the system. He rose by virtue of   his silver tongue and
35   Irish runner, beaten   in Durham by Rose Cheruiyot in the IAAF challenge last
36   IAAF Cross Country Challenge, while Rose Cheruiyot, 18, rudely   gatecrashed 
37   rui of Kenya, and his compatriot,   Rose Cheruiyot, dominated the internation
38   ntry champion   from Kenya, and now Rose Cheruiyot, the runaway winner on Sat
39   e  seeking help from the Samaritans rose dramatically last year,  figures rel
40   gas"        Both oil and gas output rose during November, with the Royal Bank
41   1988 and passenger  complaints also rose during the same period. CMB may argu
42   ry   VIII's prize warship, the Mary Rose. Early this century, they constructe
43   ise investment scheme (EIS)". David Rose, editor of the Gazette,   says that 
44    dig deep in your pockets    Graham Rose    Features                  Garden 
45   January 1995     Cuttings    Graham Rose    Features                  A new v
46    more classes of business than they rose, for   the first time since the surv
47    The IPC index of 37 leading shares rose for the   first time in a week. It e
48   rket growth of about 10%. The stock rose from   169p to 225p, outperforming t
49    related to child management, which rose from  26 to 45. This includes careta
50   e gains. Profits for the year still rose from $508m to   $522m but its shares
51   the Dundee-based construction group rose from 118p to   178p,or 65% ahead. Ca
52     seats lies. Support for the party rose from 31 per cent in the region at th
53   hs has been   Labour, whose support rose from 32 to 44 per cent in the South 
54   g a   35.5% rise as the share price rose from 358p to 444p.''It is   interest
55   e   Glasgow-based property company, rose from 36p to 52p, or 58% better.     
56   en diagnosed as having the disease  rose from 389 in 1965 to 992 in 1988. {pa
57   } The purity of the  drug, however, rose from 43 per cent in January to 47 pe
58    during 1993.        Jaguar's sales rose from 6,224 to 6,659 and the company 
59   y the   futuristic skyline of Perth rose from a sea of green parkland and swi
60   s and in danger of losing his home, Rose, from a small   village between Exet
61   ack chamber   solid with smoke that rose from heaps of oak chips on the floor
62    Demos, the radical think-tank that rose   from its ashes, claims responsibil
63   ', implying that like  the original rose garden - as the Chek Lap Kok airport
64   rs have  described it as a ``second rose garden'', implying that like  the or
65   ng Director of Social  Welfare, Mrs Rose Goodstadt, said it was too early to 
66   ng Director of  Social Welfare, Mrs Rose Goodstadt, said the plan could clear
67   y Director for Social Welfare,  Mrs Rose Goodstadt, yesterday did her best to
68   during the Korean War, 1951.        Rose Heilbron became the first woman to s
69   ng and air conditioning.  {para} Ms Rose Ho Siu-mui, co- ordinator of child c
70   he same again. The ranks of Tuscany rose in acclamation.        I can think o
71   ay today,   inadvertently ate a red rose in the excitement of opening hundred
72    Northern Ireland and the republic, rose into the top 10   following dramatic
73    medic can testify). {para}  But Dr Rose is keeping her maiden name. She has 
74   id a spokesman.        "The Minitel Rose is perfect for those whose homosexua
75   istmas circuit training   was Keith Rose, 44, jailed for life in 1991 for kil
76   DING more than six feet tall, Major Rose Kabuye, the new prefect of   Kigali,
77    includes the world premiere of The Rose Lake (Feb 19). This, he says, will  
78   cate of Education examinations also rose last  year to 202, an increase of 41
79   y fleets. The market leader's sales rose last year from   381,671 to 418,657 
80   rnoon to discuss what   happened,'' Rose Marie Gaines Sanders told me. An ele
81   ard off just days   earlier.        Rose, Matthew Williams, 25, and Andrew Ro
82   ison saw its   share price jump. It rose more than 30% in July and August alo
83   city.        Average oil production rose more than 30,000 bpd to an average 2
84   9; Lieutenant-General Sir Michael   Rose, 55; Mr Wilhelm Soukop, sculptor, 88
85   To live at temperatures which never rose much above 10C-12C   would have requ
86     restaurants in Pacific Place - La Rose Noire and Pomeroy's -  have joined t
87    home in   Devon in September 1981. Rose, of Copplestone, Exeter, did not bec
88   nquiry gathered momentum, the costs rose: $300,000 on   police overtime; $48,
89    on a computer in the cell of Keith Rose, one   of the escaped men.        Th
90   prosecution of the murderer   Keith Rose, one of the men, after fears that he
91   -oriented as Dr Ruth,  but since Dr Rose Ong started writing her health colum
92   y registrations.   Vauxhall's sales rose only marginally to 310,619 while Rov
93                 BEFORE the winter sun rose over Alaska's vast Alexander   archi
94    a 24 per cent interest. The shares rose 1p to 108p.                    22   
95   half and the year-end.   The shares rose 14p to 166p.        The number of ve
96   iscussed.        Welsh Water shares rose 1p to 639p. Manweb fell 12p to 860p.
97   e to open this autumn.   The shares rose 2p to 82p.                    9    T
98   of garden products.   Zeneca shares rose 1p to 880p.        Glaxo announced t
99   der and chief executive, said sales rose 20 per   cent last year.        Else
100   a director of Fairline, said sales rose 17 per cent   in 1994. Germany, Fran
101  he  Kowloon-Canton Railway as fares rose 9.7 per cent and eight  per cent res
102        Overall, oil and gas revenues rose 8 per cent during the month to an   
103  roduction from the Land Rover plant rose 35 per cent in 1994, to 92,500   veh
104      The group's world vehicle sales rose 4.8 per cent last year to   1.84 mil
105   per cent.        Next Retail sales rose 17 per cent on selling space that wa
106  ;O's Dover-Calais passenger numbers rose 18 per cent to   almost 10.55 millio
107  e six months to October 31, profits rose 43 per cent to $5.03   million from 
108  own. However, overall group   sales rose 10.6 per cent to $8.25 billion from 
109  year, but the   number of big cases rose 9.15 per cent to 7,315 and 335   mil
110  ber of passengers carried last year rose 17   per cent to almost 14 million, 
111  r cent   greater. Retail unit sales rose 20 per cent, a success that was achi
112  ales in the US, its largest market, rose 3 per cent.        In the UK, the ch
113   heavily on   used-car sales, which rose 37 per cent.        Vardy's speciali
114  ent early-season bargains.   Graham Rose provides a guide to the best offers.
115  rather be doing their own shopping, rose-pruning, lambada   dancing anything,
116  de side of his personality on Red   Rose Radio in Preston.        His job app
117      Yesterday it was disclosed that Rose's family intended to visit   him yes
118   Yugoslavia. It seems likely that   Rose's view of the UN would not be a mill
119  n.        Colours available will be rose, salmon, scarlet and white or white 
120  e escapers have been named as Keith Rose, 45, serving life for   murder, and 
121  by British companies outside the UK rose   sharply last year to levels last s
122    of drink-drivers caught by police rose sharply, including Kent. However,   
123  ons and administering poison; Keith Rose, 45, shot   dead the wife of a super
124  rs Rowe, 42, pressed a panic button Rose shot her four times in the   back th
125  s ago and  the number of applicants rose significantly. {para} The  advertise
126  tures                  HOUSE PRICES rose slightly last month, according to th
127  ctor. As house   prices and incomes rose slowly, if at all, people felt less 
128   gauge of future economic activity, rose smartly in   November. Amid all this
129  ar. The number of cremations   also rose steadily: today 70% of bodies are bu
130  g contracts in German products also rose strongly and the German   government
131  tap into the computerised   Minitel Rose system every week, it is a swift and
132  n apparent in General Sir Michael   Rose, the British UN commander in former 
133  ollar.   Mexican stock markets also rose. The IPC index of 37 leading shares 
134  by Lieutenant-General Sir   Michael Rose, the UN commander in Bosnia, focused
135  r, the ritual of sea-  fishing, and Rose, the young, heroic stepmother who nu
136  edium's progress from a wider, less rose-tinted perspective.        One hundr
137  nd of January 1994, pre-tax profits rose to   $1.6 million, from $1.47 millio
138  r the largest element of borrowing, rose to   $1.66 billion in November, agai
139  gatti, while the group's turnover   rose 22% to $51m.                    2/2 
140  ar to the end of September, profits rose to $7.64 million   ($5.67 million), 
141  ir-  passengers.        The balloon rose to 1, 700ft and headed off towards t
142  . The number of   continental deals rose to 112 from 106, with the aggregate 
143  d refuge for 105 women. The number  rose to 141 in 1989, and to 164 the next 
144   acquisitions in continental Europe rose to 211 from   196 in the previous 12
145   weekend, and the number of wounded rose to 217 on Monday   from 103 on Satur
146   in July for $3   million. Earnings rose to 26.1p a share from 20.8p and the 
147  articularly in Brazil where sales   rose to 7,340 cars from 1,563. In Argenti
148  ose by 69 per cent.        Earnings rose to 7.5p a share from 5.3p. The inter
149  , was placed over a   wood fire and rose to about 1,000ft before descending s
150  s belief. One of the survivors, who rose to become a high-  ranking French pu
151  rwich were quickly behind as Scales rose to head home   Bjornebye's corner to
152  a} Mr Suen looked uncomfortable. He rose to his  feet, with his brow knotted.
153  ?'' asked Mr Young.  {para} Mr Suen rose to his feet again. ``Mr Deputy Presi
154  ths to   October 31 pre-tax profits rose to Ir$4.58 million from Ir$2.65   mi
155  iversity last year, but that figure rose to just under 90  per cent after tho
156  ms per cubic metre a day, but they  rose to more than 300 micrograms. {para} 
157  w and then keeping low, but Hendren rose to the occasion in great style   and
158  e Royal Hongkong Police in 1963 and rose to the rank  of superintendent. In 1
159  lion per day. Sterling oil revenues rose to their   highest level since Novem
160  it like parcels in a sock, and they rose to three haphazard   levels against 
161  ife. Passing sentence, Mr   Justice rose told him: "You are clearly a clever,
162  nd sizes, to candles and even dried rose  topiaries, which look like a little
163  ed to   kill his own family.        Rose was jailed for life for murdering th
164   through their window.        Keith Rose, 45, was jailed for life at Exeter C
165       Another of the escapers, Keith Rose, 45, was jailed for life in 1991   f
166  managed to free himself and escape. Rose was sentenced   by the Old Bailey in
167   signed their accord 15 months ago, rose   when a visit to autonomous Jericho
168  ng distance.        Arsenal's hopes rose when Ferdinand went off injured at t
169   attend the talks hosted by General Rose, which are expected to continue   fo
170       Just who is in charge here?    Rose Wild    Features                  Ro
171  mercy on the hard road to solace    Rose Wild    Features                  A 
172  e Wild    Features                  Rose Wild finds a series about nannies un
173  our of need a knight   of the White Rose will ride to the rescue.        Hist
174   touched. But dangerous men such as Rose, Williams and Rodger are not kept at
175  be opened by a single   master key. Rose, Williams and Rodger had a handmade 
176  just behind the Tribunaux: it has a rose window that you can   see gleaming i
177  ter, Lady Davina   Windsor and Lady Rose Windsor.        Barnwell was describ
178  e they   fashioned the 25ft ladder. Rose worked in the garden of the recreati
179       Detectives were convinced that Rose would have left his victim to   star
Answer the following questions by studying the corpus printout and typing your answers in the spaces provided.

Once you have done that, click on the check button and the definition will appear for you to check your suggested answers.

  1. How many entries for Rose as a girl’s name are there?
    55
  2. How many entries are there for rose as the name of a type of flower?
    5 (63, 64, 71, 116, 162)
  3. When used as a verb (i.e. the past tense of rise), the possible adverbs used to modify it are:
    dramatically, marginally, sharply, significantly, smartly, strongly, steadily, slightly, slowly
  4. List all rose + adv/prep forms: rose by, rose from, rose to
    rose by, rose from, rose to
  5. What are the lexical words that occur frequently in the immediate environment of ‘rose’?
    profits, earnings, stock/shares, sales, prices

Activity 3

Read these entries for a concordance and then try to guess the missing word for each one.

Entry 1
1    0C. Baste the skewers with melted _______ and cook for about 10 minutes until 
2     care about animals on a plate with _______ and garlic. What is le probleme?  
3    Speak, for instance T- glottaling "_______"  as "bu-er". A generation ago they 
4    rall to behold. However, when the _______ began to seep out through the open  
5    Definitive ingredients: cream, _______, cheese, apples and cider. Re
6    tage our chanterelles were fried in ______, coated liberally with white pepper
7    ruit, their fat slabs of cheese and ______, cornucopias of mussels, prawns, a
8    sh breadcrumbs 4 tbsp melted ________. Cut the mozzarella into 20 cu
9    laced the contents of more than one _______ dish inside. {para} At the end of t
10   cruising river, and the bread and _______ for KD River Cruises (0372-742033). 
11   d sole with spiced rice and lobster _______. I nicked a bit of Vanessa's pumpk
12   success provides your bread and ________. Just a little local mistake?
13   Scientists claim the switch from _______ to polyunsaturated spreads has incre
15   report the debate over the merits of _______ versus margarine. Manufacture
Entry 2
1    ra}  ``I think China made a serious _______ because it gives the impression th
6    n's pro-line soccer pool made the _______ because some games were played earli
7    st of his life for correcting this_______ before it became law, and depriving 
8    irst place, he had made a technical _______  but one made in her best interest. 
9    the far post. Then an embarrassing _______ by Bartram, the Arsenal goalkeeper
10   t shadow cabinet will not make this _______ by including it in its plans for t
11   ld fired narrowly over after a rare _______ by Pearce in the first half and, f
12   in this age of technology, such a   ________ could be made. While many of our pro
14   e} THE Government has admitted its _______ for having injected wrong medicatio
15   r Patten's critics. ``It's a great ______ for Hongkong now to come apart and p
16   on took one year and just saying a ______ had been made is not enough.  {para}
18   a} ``This is the first time a tiny ______ has been made in four public forums 
19   id the Government might have made a ______ in not defending Section 25 hard en

Entry 3

1   norts dismissively, "you all should _____ about that" When Hersh firs
2   so terrible. Sure, he implied, we _____ about animals on a plate with butter
3   people in Beijing neither know nor _____about Mr Patten. {para} A group of 
4   tarnished image of the sport we all _____ about passionately" through a seri
5   show on the road, and who did not _____ about what was socially acceptable
6   will have to wait''. {para} He said ____ and attention homes refused to take
7   omised to open the first specialist_____ and attention home for the mentally
8   d more than a decade for the first _____ and attention home for the severely 
9   ospital services and primary health _____ for  patients, writes Fiona Chan. {p
10  he concept that young people should _____ for  themselves and for others. {par
11  didn't have enough of  anything. To _____ for a baby you need lots of milk, wa
12  or the violence can be   people who _____ for animals, otherwise they would no
13  h by accident aggravated by lack of _____ in the  case of Ms Lai Fung, who liv
14  the administration to exercise due _____ in the choice of the appropriate ti
15  raise recurrent spending on health _____, including hospital services, by 22
16  t was transferred to the intensive _____ unit after the operation but  never 
17  e nurses training in the intensive ______ unit and operation theatre at  the Q
Entry 4
1    to worship" The Government should ______ carefully to teachers' complaints.  
2    dependent survey revealed more than ______  ership figures, it had something to
3    good idea, for when I stopped to _____, hoping to glean the time of their  
4    ybody who does or does not want to _____. I'm saying it now. Australia's pos
5    So it will find me most prepared to ______ if it shows me ways to contain the
6    can watch each other playing and ______ in high-quality stereo sound. At the
7    uro-standard digital tuning we will ______ in to London Christian Radio, a st
8    on't really want to do it. But they ______. Men don't listen, they charge off
9    eachers and social workers and will ______ more to their opinions,'' they said
10   gkong. {para} ``I think many people ______ not with malicious intent, but beca
11   nough is enough, there is a need to ______ now before it is too late.        
12   that language, either they don't ______or they don't get what you are sayin
13   t wonderful Welsh/Italian accent to ______ out for from a professor of, appro
14   e. We urge the Labour leadership to _______. Penelope Penney Presi
15   stooge in return for being able to ______. The talk was knowing, intimate, a
16   o do it. But they listen. Men don't ______, they charge off thinking they can
17   mons telling anybody daft enough to ______ to him that Space Invaders were th
18   ragraphs were too long and wouldn't ______ to the questions," he said. "She w

Once you have finished, click on the CHECK button below and your results will be displayed.

  1. Entry 1 : butter Answer: butter
  2. Entry 2 : mistake Answer: mistake
  3. Entry 3 : care Answer: care
  4. Entry 4 : listen Answer: listen
Click the tabs to show contents.
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