You need to know:
This is divided into:
grammar - you need to know about vocabulary, syntax (grammar in sentences), morphology (how to make words out of parts of words; eg. 'morph' = 'form', and '-ology' = 'a science'), pronunciation and graphology (the shape of the letters and how to write them etc.). CILL has lots of materials on vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.
text - you need to know about cohesion
(how to join sentences and paragraphs to make a single text; eg. by using
- linking words (and, but, so, therefore, etc.)
- referencing words (this, those, he, they, it, that etc.)
- ordering words (Firstly, Secondly, Next, Lastly (NOT 'at last')
CILL materials on this include 'The Process of Composition Writing', writing shelf, upper-intermediate level; and 'Technical Writing and Professional Communication', pages 408 - 426, career English shelf, upper-intermediate level.
This is divided into:
how to use the language in social situations - you need
to know about
- the culture of the native speakers
- slang and idioms; (see; eg. 'Idioms Workbook', vocabulary shelf, upper-intermediate level)
- what is natural speech (see our Function index)
- different accents (eg. a London accent)
- varieties (British English, American English etc.) (see the 'British / American Dictionary', dictionary shelf, intermediate level).
- register (politeness, formality, and suitable language for a situation)
knowing how to describe the world in the language - you need to know about how to use the language to describe the world and your ideas about it (see the Function index).
Useful materials in CILL on culture are:
This is how to take part in communication in the language. You need to know, for example:
about gestures that are acceptable and unacceptable to the native speakers,
about body language,
how to plan what you want to say in a conversation,
how to take turns in a conversation,
how to repair a problem in a conversation (such as asking for a repeat or a paraphrase) and
how to finish a conversation politely.
Useful materials in CILL for this are:
'Say the Word' - speaking shelf, elementary level
'Now You're Talking' - speaking shelf, early-intermediate level
'Speaking Solutions' - speaking shelf, intermediate level
(Adapted from: Bachman, Lyle (1990) Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing Oxford: Oxford University Press)
If you have any suggestions or questions, please e-mail us at .
Last updated on: Thursday, June 17, 2004.